Stringent emission norms around the globe have left the automakers with no choice but to downsize and add turbos. It appears that not only automakers but independent engineers are also exploring ways to make an ICE more efficient.
Jim Clarke, who worked at Ford, has come up with an idea of adding individual turbochargers for each cylinder. This set up requires individual throttles—two per cylinder, one for each intake port, and small turbos—which spool faster. Thanks to the small packaging, the turbos sit very close to the exhaust valves and could potentially eliminate any turbo lag.
At this point, all this is still a theory—no prototype has been built or tested according to the author at Car and Driver who worked under Jim.